This glossary defines terms used by StreamNet and in related documents. The glossary also includes acronyms when these exist. StreamNet aims to align with existing definitions agreed upon by its regional partners and other official sources, thus the majority of the terms included in this glossary have definitions from PNAMP’s MonitoringResources.org and from Data Management Association International (DAMA).
|Adult Return — Estimates of Spawning Population|
This data category contains estimates of the total number of fish returning to spawn in a defined location. The estimates are usually derived from expansions of redd counts or other index area counts. For salmon the data include adults, jacks, or a combination of both; adults are generally presumed unless specified otherwise in the source documentation. These values are generally generated annually.
|Adult Return — Peak/Other Spawning Counts|
This data category contains counts of fish on their spawning grounds. Included are both counts of live fish and dead fish, presented as either raw counts or as number of fish per mile. The term “peak count” is used in at least two different ways in the Pacific Northwest: 1) a single count conducted at the time when the peak number of fish are expected to be on the spawning grounds; 2) the highest count from several conducted through the course of the spawning season. Which definition of “peak” count is meant varies geographically and perhaps temporarily. Refer to the documentation to determine which measure is meant for each particular time series. These counts are generally conducted annually.
|Adult Return — Redd Counts|
This data category contains redd count data. Counts are presented as either raw counts or as number of redds per mile. The term “peak count” is used in at least two different ways in the Pacific Northwest: 1) a single count conducted at the time when the peak number of redds are expected to be on the spawning grounds; 2) the highest count from several conducted through the course of the spawning season. Which definition of “peak” count is meant varies geographically and perhaps temporarily. Refer to the documentation to determine which measure is meant for each particular time series. These counts are generally conducted annually.
|Adult Return — Spawner/Recruit Estimates|
This data category contains spawner:recruit relationships for anadromous fishes. The values were generated by agency biologists based on run reconstructions. Unlike other data in the StreamNet database, these are highly-derived values rather than raw or minimally-derived values.
This is the GUID assigned to a user of the StreamNet API. All records submitted or altered by a user are stamped with her/his unique id.
|Application Programming Interface (API)|
A published standard format for communicating with applications.
A copy of a database or documents preserved in a secondary, lower cost storage location, for infrequent historical reference and/or recovery.
(1)Able to accept input from older or earlier versions of a device or software. (2) Operational on older technology even if limited in functionality.
|Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)|
The Bonneville Power Administration is a nonprofit federal power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest. Although BPA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services. BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydroelectric projects in the Northwest, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants. The dams are operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation. The nonfederal nuclear plant, Columbia Generating Station, is owned and operated by Energy Northwest, a joint operating agency of the state of Washington. BPA provides about 28 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest and its resources — primarily hydroelectric — make BPA power nearly carbon free.
the generic term for items at any level within a classification.
|Columbia River Basin (Basin)|
Columbia River Basin is an area of about 259,000 square miles that spans seven U.S. states and a portion of southeastern British Columbia. The Columbia River is the main river draining the basin. Major tributaries feeding the Columbia include the Kootenai, Flathead, Clark Fork/Pend Oreille, Kettle, Okanogan, Methow, Spokane, Wenatchee, Yakima, Snake, Clearwater, Salmon, Owyhee, Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, Umatilla, John Day, Deschutes, Hood, Willamette, Klickitat, Lewis, and Cowlitz rivers. The largest tributary, the Snake River, drains an area of nearly 110,000 square miles or almost 50 percent of the U.S. portion of the basin.
Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Council Document Number 2014-12
|Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC)|
The Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission coordinates management policy and provides fisheries technical services for the Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, and the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation.
CRITFC’s mission is “to ensure a unified voice in the overall management of the fishery resources, and as managers, to protect reserved treaty rights through the exercise of the inherent sovereign powers of the tribes.”
|Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes)|
The Twelve Bands compose the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation: Chelan, Chief Joseph Band of Nez Perce, Colville, Entiat, Lakes, Methow, Moses-Columbia, Nespelem, Okanogan, Palus, San Poil, Wenatchi
|Coordinated Assessments Data Exchange (CAX)|
This is the aggregated database of Coordinated Assessments indicators and metrics submitted by data source agencies and housed at StreamNet.
|Coordinated Assessments Partnership (CAP)|
a collaborative process to efficiently share and provide access to standardized derived information, such as fish population high level indicators (HLI) and supporting metrics. The geographic scope of the CAP is the Pacific Northwest with a focus on sharing natural and hatchery origin fish information and fish habitat-related information, such as fish population high level indicators (HLIs) and supporting metrics.
|Coordinated Assessments Partnership Data Exchange Standard Development Team (CAP DDT)|
The CAP DDT consists mainly of the data contributing partners’ data management professionals and biologists who calculate the HLIs and metrics. The CAP DDT is a team serving under the StreamNet Steering Committee that in turn serves under the StreamNet Executive Committee. The CAP DDT also coordinates, as needed, with the StreamNet Technical Team and the StreamNet DDT.
Create, Read, Update, Delete. The 4 main operations that are performed on a data store resource.
|Dam/Weir Counts (Adult or Juvenile)|
This data category mainly contains counts of fish at dams or weirs. These counts are generally summarized as annual totals.
(1) facts represented as text, numbers, graphics, images, sound, or video. Data is hte raw material used to represent information, or from which information can be derived (Everest 2010). (2) the individual facts that are out of context, and have no meaning by themselves, they are often referred to as raw data, such as 123.45. Data have historically been defined as plural; datum is the singular form (Brackett 2011).
the process that supports long-term storage of scientific data and methods used to read or interpret it. Data archival is a step along the path of data preservation, and can be phased for online, near online, or offline storage availability. The data archival process is an important part of data migration and data refresh.
refers to various types of data (redd counts, dam facilities, etc.).
a person or group that received data (on a screen, in a report, or through a query) and uses the data to create information. Also called information consumer.
(1) the process of changing the data structure, format or contents to comply with some rule or measurement requirement. (2) the process of changing data contents stored in one system so that it can be stored in another system, or used by an application.
a person who enters or updates data . Roughly equivalent to data producer.
(also called Data Attribute)
(1) an inherent fact, property, or characteristic describing an entity or object, the logical representation of a physical field or relational table column, A given attribute has the same format, interpretation, and domain for all occurrences of an entity. Attributes may contain adjective values (red, round, etc). (2) a unit of data for which the definition, identification, representation, and permissible values are specified by means of a set of characteristics.
(also called Data Attribute)
a data value that provides incorrect or false knowledge about the business, or about business objective and events that are important to the business (Brackett 2011)
the process of sending and receiving data
|Data Exchange Standard (DES)|
The DESs is the set of formal rules for the structure of data elements for a data category, and documents agreements on the representation, format, definition, structuring, tagging, transmission, manipulation, use, and management of data in which data are shared. The document that holds the various DES for the different data categories in a database is referred to as the DES Document.
the transfer of data between systems, applications, or data sets.
the exercise of authority control, and shared decision-making (planning, monitoring, and enforcement) over the management of data assets
an individual field in a data record, referred to as a column in a relational database. A data item represents a data attribute, subject to adjustments made during formal data denomalization (Brackett 2011)
an individual responsible for definitions, policy, and practice decisions about data within their area of responsibility
the process which involves checking or logging the data in; checking the data for accuracy, entering the data into the computer; transforming the data; and developing and documenting a data base structure that integrates the various measures. This process includes preparation and assignment of appropriate metadata to describe the product in human readable code/format.
a person, organization, or software service creating or providing data. See also data creator.
provenance applied to the organization’s data resources (Brackett 2011).
the degree to which data is accurate, complete, and timely, consistent with all requirements and business rules, and relevant for a given use.
|Data Quality Assurance (QA)|
quality inspection and review processes for data, data models, ad data base designs, including testing for application data controls and edits, testing of data integration programs, data quality analysis, and data quality audits.
a physical grouping of data items that are stored in or retrieved from a data file. It is referred to as a row or tuple in a relational database. A data record represents a data instance (Brackett 2011).
A storage space or container for monitoring or research data that may include Measurements, Metrics, and/or Indicators. Typically repositories are set up by Organizations to hold data generated by one or more Monitoring Programs; however, some repositories hold data from multiple organizations and/or monitoring programs and some don’t hold raw data, but instead offer summaries of data, such as technical reports, publications, or figures/graphs displaying data.
Ideally, these repositories are online relational databases (not just text files or spreadsheets) and accessible to the public, or at least accessible via a user account (that requires logging in). A single data set generated by a Method does not constitute an Data Repository.
Note: In monitoringresources.org, we now call these “Environmental Information Repositories” the updated name more accurately reflects the types of data the monitoring community is interested in tracking. You can view the full list of Environmental Information Repositories.
an interface to a business process that receives or delivers data attributes, usually via a web application.
A collection of data, usually presented in tabular form. Each column represents a particular variable. Each row corresponds to a given member of the data set in question. It lists values for each of the variables, such as height and weight of an object. Each value is known as a datum. The data set may comprise data for one or more members, corresponding to the number of rows. Nontabular data sets can take the form of marked up strings of characters, such as an XML file. Source: Wikipedia
exchange of data and/or metadata in a situation involving the use of open, freely available data formats, where process patterns are known and standard, and where not limited by privacy and confidentiality regulations.
|Data Sharing Agreement|
an agreement between parties that describes the allowed activities, uses, and restrictions regarding data shared between the parties.
a business leader and/or subject matter expert designated as accountable for: (a) the quality of data names, business definitions data integrity rules, and domain values within an assigned subject areas. (b) compliance with regularity requirements and conformance to internal data policies and data standards. (c) analyzing and improving data quality, and (f) identifying and resolving data related issues.
(also called Data Custodian)
(1) the formal, specifically assigned , and entrusted accountability for business responsibilities ensuring effective control and use of data and information resources. (2) the formal accountability for business responsibilities ensuring effective control and use of data assets (DAMA-DMBOK Guide, 1st edition, pg.39)
(1) a category of physical data structures with common physical properties an d uses, such as numeric, alphanumeric, packed decimal, datetime, etc. (2) a set of distinct values characterized by properties of those values and by operations on those values [ISO/IEC 11404:1996, 4.11]
the process of inserting or modifying a data attribute in a database
the process of monitoring the results of data compilation and ensuring the quality of the computational results.
techniques for graphical representation of trends, patterns and other information
|Facilities — Dams|
This data category contains detailed information about dam facilities. These data are infrequently updated.
|Facilities — Hatcheries|
This data category contains detailed information about hatchery facilities. These data are infrequently updated.
This data category provides information about barriers to fish migration. The data for any particular barrier are infrequently updated, but this data category is frequently updated as new information is added to the database.
This data category is defined as “areas of suitable and accessible habitat currently believed to be used by wild, hatchery, or naturalized fish populations, based on sampling and/or best biological judgment.” “Current” is defined by each data-providing agency according to their policies. The data set identifies where various species are believed to exist, but does not address where a species is absent — lack of a record for a particular species in a particular place should not be interpreted as implying that the species does not exist there. Rather, you should interpret lack of a record as simply that a determination has not been made for that species at that location. While it is certainly true that a species is not present at a great many places where they are not shown, this data set should not be used as positive evidence for a species being absent at a location. These data are updated as new information becomes available.
|Globally Unique Identifier (GUID)|
This is a computer generated unique id. Here is an example: 7D4D35FB-E4F1-4E71-99CF-400DB1EDE851 A GUID used as the primary id on every record in all CA data tables.
|Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP)|
are used to evaluate and document habitat losses and habitat gains. HEP is used to quantify the impacts of development, protection, and restoration on terrestrial and aquatic habitats by assessing changes, both negative and positive, in habitat quality and quantity.
|Habitat Restoration/Improvement Projects|
This data category contains information about activities that have occurred (or did not occur) on the ground in order to improve or protect fish habitat. It contains project participants, goals, target and non-target species affected, treatments applied, funding sources, and more. This data category was pursued by StreamNet for only a short period of time and is not currently being further developed, so the data are incomplete and recent data are not available.
|Harvest — Freshwater/Estuary|
This data category contains data from all types of estuarine and freshwater harvest (commercial, tribal, sport). Life stage for anadromous salmonids is presumed to be a combination of adults and jacks unless specified otherwise in the source documentation. Trends in this category are generally shown as annual summaries. This data type is not currently being further developed, so recent data are not available.
|Harvest — Marine|
This data category contains data from all types of marine harvest (primarily sport at this time). Life stage for anadromous salmonids is presumed to be a combination of adults and jacks unless specified otherwise in the source documentation. This data category was pursued by StreamNet for only a short period of time and is not currently being further developed, so the data are incomplete and recent data are not available.
This data category contains counts of fish captured at hatchery facilities (including off-site weirs), fish captured in the wild and brought into hatcheries, and transfers of fish between hatcheries. It also includes spawning information, and also final disposition of fish that returned to hatcheries. These counts are conducted annually.
|Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG)|
is an independent scientific panel under the Pacific Northwest Hatchery Reform Project that reviewed hatcheries and developed comprehensive reform recommendations to improve the hatcheries role in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmon and steelhead.
|Idaho Fish and Game (IDFG)|
Idaho Fish and Game’s mission is to protect, preserve, perpetuate and manage Idaho’s wildlife resources.
A 1938 voter initiative created the Idaho Fish and Game Commission structure that governs the agency today.
Value resulting from the data reduction of Metrics across sites and temporal periods based on applying the procedures in the Inference Design. A reported value used to indicate the status, condition, or trend of a resource or ecological process; intended to answer questions posed by the Objectives of the Protocol. Contrast with Metric.
For example, measurement of channel migration (metric) + over a period of time (metric) = Channel Migration Rate (indicator)
Per the Inference Design, Metrics are combined or reduced to produce Indicators.
|Inter-Tribal Monitoring Data (ITMD)|
The purpose of CRITFC’s ITMD project is to assist CRITFC and its member tribes in the timely and accurate capture, storage, processing, and dissemination of data for management of anadromous fish and their habitats. The CRITFC ITMD, by coordinating and integrating appropriate activities with the CAP, ensures consistent data sharing with the CAX data system for Basin salmon and steelhead high level indicators and related trend data.
|Maps — View Pre-built Maps|
This data category provides access to maps previously prepared by StreamNet for various purposes. New maps are added as they become available.
Metadata describe information about a dataset, including who, what, where, when, why, and how, so that it can be understood, re-used, and integrated with other datasets. Metadata records follow a standard format to enable interoperability.
|Metadata – Discovery|
Metadata records that typically provide a minimum of essential information to enable a user to find out if a particular dataset exists, its location and ownership, and how to obtain further information.
|Metadata – Full|
Metadata records that include additional information on such aspects as data quality and lineage (provenance) and technical details for access and exploitation.
Contrast with discovery level metadata which typically provides a minimum of essential information to enable a user to find out if a particular dataset exists, its location and ownership, and how to obtain further information. Source: GBIF
A value resulting from the reduction or processing of Measurements taken at a Site and temporal unit at one or more times during the study period based on the procedures defined by the Response Design. Metrics can be used to estimate an Indicator using an Inference Design. Note that a variety of Metrics can be derived from original Measurements
MonitoringResources.org is a suite of complementary tools designed to guide and assist monitoring practitioners and researchers who are collecting and analyzing data with their monitoring programs, from the early design stage through implementation and generation of descriptive statistics. It also serves resource managers, funding entities, and policy makers by giving them a comprehensive view of monitoring programs and projects that are occurring or have occurred in a given spatial extent. In addition, natural resource managers and funding entities can use the tool to track information about Methods, Metrics, and Protocols, possibly recommending certain ones for use with their program.
|Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP)|
|National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA-F)|
is responsible for the stewardship of the nation’s ocean resources and their habitat. NOAA Fisheries provide vital services for the nation: productive and sustainable fisheries, safe sources of seafood, the recovery and conservation of protected resources, and healthy ecosystems—all backed by sound science and an ecosystem-based approach to management.
|Natural Origin Spawner Abundance (NOSA)|
Number of natural origin fish that actually spawn, not necessarily the number of fish returning to a spawning area.
|Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC)|
The 1980 Northwest Power Act authorized Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to develop a regional power plan and fish and wildlife program to balance the Northwest’s environment and energy needs. The heart of the Council’s mission is to preserve the benefits of the Columbia River for future generations.
|Number of juvenile outmigrants|
For natural origin fish this is the number of fish passing a defined point as they migrate downstream
A formal statement detailing a desired outcome of a Project. A good objective meets S.M.A.R.T. criteria: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-oriented, Time-limited (Doran, GT 1981)
|Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW)|
mission’s is to protect and enhance Oregon’s fish and wildlife and their habitats for use and enjoyment by present and future generations.
|Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP)|
is a forum to facilitate collaboration around aquatic monitoring topics of interest, promote best practices for monitoring, and encourage coordination and integration of monitoring activities as appropriate.
|Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC)|
As stated by the governing compact, PSMFC’s purpose shall be “to promote the better utilization of fisheries – marine, shell, and anadromous, which are of mutual concern, and to develop a joint program of protection and prevention of physical waste of such fisheries in all of those areas of the Pacific Ocean over which the compacting states jointly or separately now have or may hereafter acquire jurisdiction.” Member states include California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska. Each represented by three Commissioners.
This data category provides access to a wide range of digital photographs and images collected by StreamNet. All photographs are public domain and may be freely used unless otherwise noted.
For natural origin fish this is the number of natural origin juvenile fish in a population. Usually late summer parr, but may be any time and stage.
|Proportionate natural influence (PNI)|
Estimate of the relative selection pressure of the natural environment in an integrated natural / hatchery population.
This data category contains stream reaches where the Northwest Power and Conservation Council has determined that hydroelectric development should be discouraged in order to protect fish and wildlife values. The fullest explanation of Protected Areas can be found on the Data & Maps section of this website.
|Quality Assurance (QA)|
the process of ensuring that the development effort will result in the desired product. Quality assurance focuses on defect prevention. Typical quality assurance tools are check lists, project audits, and documented standards. QA activities typically occur up-front in a project.
|Quality Control (QC)|
the process of verifying that product deliverables are complete, correct, and meet expected outcomes. Quality control focuses on defect identification. Typical quality control tools include products inspections and testing processes, and peer reviews. QC activities occur at the end of a project.
|Recruit per spawner (RperS)|
Recruit per spawner ratios are specific to the locations and seasons described in each record of data. The number of “recruits” can be defined at any life stage.
|Representational State Transfer (REST)|
For our purpose, this is a simple type of web service that is generally implemented via the common HTTP protocol (browser speak).
a statement that applies a logic or an algorithm to information values to determine a resulting output or action, or to constrain the data relation of its valid values.
(1) generally, a diagrammatic representation of the structure, framework, or population of instances of something. (2) in data management a data structure. (3) in some database software, a synonym for an instance of a DBMS. (4) in XML the set of allowable XML tags, usually expressed in DTD or XSD.
a data model diagram that expresses the structure of a data model in graphical terms, depicting types, but not including ant actual or sample data values, i.e., instances (Everest 2010).
a set of XML tag definitions used to define and document XML applications.
XML stands for ‘eXtensible Markup Language (XML).
|Smolt to adult return rate (SAR)|
For natural origin fish this is the point estimate of the number of returning natural origin adults, divided by the point estimate of the number of smolts that produced those returning adults. This value is multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage.
|StreamNet Data Exchange Standard Development Team (CAP DDT)|
The StreamNet DDT consists mainly of the data contributing partners’ data management professionals and biologists who submit data to the Fish Monitoring Data (trends) database. The StreamNet DDT is a team serving under the StreamNet Steering Committee that in turn serves under the StreamNet Executive Committee. The StreamNet DDT also coordinates, as needed, with the StreamNet Technical Team and the CAP DDT.
|StreamNet Executive Committee (SN ExCom)|
provides policy-level guidance and decision-making for StreamNet and the CAP. The primary role of the SN ExCom is to ensure alignment with regional data management and sharing needs, that tasks are focused on achieving strategic goals, and that resources are allocated to regional and agency priorities.
|StreamNet Steering Committee (SN SC)|
The Steering Committee provides support, guidance and oversight of progress for the StreamNet Program.
|Technical Outreach and Assistance to Subbasins Team (TOAST)|
The Oregon Subbasin Planning Coordinating Group’s (OCG) Technical Outreach and Assistance Team (TOAST) provided assistance during the NPCC subbasin planning process that initiated after the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program amendment. TOAST served to provide a regional overview of out of subbasin factors impacting anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin.
Long-term temporal pattern (i.e. change over time) in what you are monitoring.
|U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)|
is the premier government agency dedicated to the conservation, protection, and enhancement of fish, wildlife and plants, and their habitats. USFWS is the only agency in the federal government whose primary responsibility is the conservation and management of these important natural resources for the American public. The USFWS’s origins date back to 1871 when Congress established the U.S. Fish Commission to study the decrease in the nation’s food fishes and recommend ways to reverse that decline.
any document, file, graphic, image, text, report, form ,video, or sound recording that has not been tagged or otherwise structured into rows and columns or records.
determining and confirming that something satisfies or conforms to defined rules, business rules, integrity constraints, defined standards, etc. The system cannot perform any validation unless it first has a definition of the ways things should be.
the unique identification and storage of multiple versions of an object.
|Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)|
is dedicated to preserving, protecting, and perpetuating the state’s fish, wildlife, and ecosystems while providing sustainable fish and wildlife recreational and commercial opportunities.
platform-neutral, vendor-independent protocols that enable distributed processing to be performed using XML and Web-based technologies. Sometimes instantiated as remote procedures calls in which the request is an XML document (DAMA definition).
Or as more simply defined by StreamNet, an “always-on” function available at a specific World Wide Web address.